Who On Earth?

I recently submitted manuscript proposal or query to six literary agencies. Most of my inquiries have been largely unsuccessful. I chalk this up to my inexperience in the industry or profession. In one regard, this process is very difficult. In the other regard, the process resembles a very interesting journey. The process has become interesting at times once I am somehow able to hold constant all of the different variables that would ordinarily increase anxiety. This task can be insurmountable at times. Holding anxiety constant provides opportunities to observe what I consider the very small crumbs of information that I hope might lead to a publication. I will try and remember to blog the experience.

I first heard of the term ‘concentric circle’ as an adult student at San Jose State University. I probably heard the term in a geometry class in high school. One professor described it briefly in a lecture or during office hours. A few other helpful points on writing accompanied the discussion. I think I remember that at least one of the points centered on formatting a written paper. I have since become intimately involved in learning to write and continuously attempt to put forth a written product for publication. I enrolled in graduate school to learn or re-learn how to write. This process is ten years or longer in the making for me.

I think I understand the concept of a concentric circle in terms of marketing a written work after publication. Application of the concentric circle is used to identify an inner core audience and then grow outward as people read the work and discuss the ideas and content within it. Social media can facilitate this discussion rapidly for marketing purposes. In the age of social media, the spread of an original idea can occur rapidly because of the inter-connectivity of the digital marketplace and discussion forums. I am skeptical of social media and online forums as starting points for endeavor. I am old-fashioned in the sense that I prefer word of mouth and the human interaction and discussion in the generation of ideas, even when I say absolutely nothing. Social media often removes the human interaction from the equation and translates to mean spirited mobilization of a collective. Another former Professor at San Jose State said to practice divorcing the self from the product to increase the likelihood that negative feedback is channeled appropriately. The lesson: the self is distinct from the product.

Of course, words matter. The reality of life is that individual people do not always couch human discourse in complete sensitivity to a collective or individual norm. This is probably part of one person or group fighting for the right of a less strong person or group because the stronger person or group feels that the less strong person or group has been slighted by the collective in some real or perceived fashion. People feel emotion which can sometimes cloud objectivity and decision making in private and public settings. Collective mobilization can be a positive for trampling a political opponent or demonstrating action for some other worldly cause, but the individuals within the collective are just as likely to experience some form of Group-think behavior that includes negative aspects that harm individuals in society. Group-think behavior is the normative and subjective cloud over a collective that ruins societies, tramples individual rights, and destroys individual innovation.

Proponents of social media are likely to argue that technology is the future of innovation and sometimes neglect the human drive for improvement which exists externally to the social media industry. Social media forums can reduce the human element of life into a compartmentalized veil of binary choice. No room for human error occurs within this compartment. The is one example of the concept for American exceptionalism. The contradiction is that most people are ordinary and aspire to exceptionalism.

Compartmentalization and technology put Americans in space and onto the moon after American people decided to work with one another toward accomplishing that goal. I would venture to say that this process toward the heavens led people to rely more on their inner angels than on any tool devised for space travel. The technological tools facilitated the process. The belief generated the way forward.

One of the positive aspects of not having an inner core audience out of the gate is the organic development of an original work in the process of discovering new knowledge. The process of discovery is often brutal. Some people have remarked that the process can also be rewarding.

Concentric circles remind me of a topographical map. For the first time reader of a topographical map, thousands upon thousands of lines move squiggly in what appears as many different directions. Trained topographical readers understand that lines very close together indicate sharp increases in elevation. Lines further apart indicate gradual increases in elevation. Centers of elevation are often marked by a hilltop number, ridge, mountain top elevation, and so on. Different fields of study are likely to have similar characteristics for analysis. For example, meteorologists study wind patterns at different levels in the sky. Oceanographers study the sea patterns and tides and life within the ocean and must also have knowledge of the ocean floor. Marketers need to understand  the production and consumption cycles and equilibrium to study the consumption and production patterns of society. It is very likely that all of these fields use the concentric circle to some level to identify the cores of change in each respective field. The core of change in the process of publication is likely the publisher, the literary agent, and the author.

I view the concentric circle applied to the publication of a manuscript as the opposite of a topographical map with concentric lines that represent the depths of discovery rather than elevation. The outer rings of the concentric circle resemble individuals or groups in society that are closer to the surface of society. The inner rings represent layers of critics who discuss in unison the ideas put forth by internal and external members of the ring. The concentric core audience are the final decision makers or possibly the gatekeepers that permit or reject the original idea for publication. The criteria that I used to move this project forward is: Will this project contribute to the scientific body of knowledge? I think I am beginning to recognize that there is more criteria to this process than the question I used to continue down this path.

Unfortunately, a new author’s path is completely uncertain. The new author assumes all of the entrepreneurial risks involved in working toward the completion of a project that seemingly has no end. The end of a project is the beginning of a publication. Yet, the author has limited control of the process for publication. This is likely to mean that undertaking a process with limited control over an outcome increases the ambiguity and uncertainty of completion. Who on earth would knowingly engage in or actually seek out this type of activity?

I submitted proposals for a manuscript that includes 14 chapters. I realize that I would work with an agent in the process to determine the content of a publication, but I also think that eight of the chapters and the current epilogue should be combined to form nine chapters. I also think that the first six chapters should remain in the current chronological order. The current eighth chapter should actually be the seventh chapter and the current seventh chapter should become the eighth. The current epilogue should become the ninth chapter of the first manuscript.

I worked at least three times longer on the first eight chapters and epilogue than I did on the other five chapters. The last five chapters have caused me significant and sometimes increasing frustration and headache. This frustration may be a result of my attempts at combining the first and second parts of the manuscript to form one manuscript rather than two manuscripts. I am supposed to start a program this fall that could provide new topics of study that could align the overall themes of government regulation of the environment with the second five chapters of the manuscript. The new topics of study are likely to include environmental regulation and policy. I hesitate in moving forward in this second endeavor and manuscript because I have yet to see any fruits of my labor regarding the first endeavor and manuscript and the nearly ten years of  graduate school. I am already going to have a difficult time paying for the costs I have incurred in this process.

 

Baldwin, J. Norman. “Political Science 662 Organizational Theory.” Class Notes at The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (Spring 2016).

Posamentier, Alfred S. and Robert Geretschlager. The Circle A Mathematical Explanation Beyond the Line. New York: Prometheus Books, 2016.

Posementier, Alfred S. and Ingram Lehman. The Secrets of Triangles A Mathematical Journey. New York: Prometheus Books, 2012.

Ross, Gail and Howard Yoon. “Publishing and Social Media.” YouTube Ross Yoon Agency, Washington D.C., (November 2, 2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1/2 Marathon Training Plan for Fall 2019

I watched part of the Olympic track and field trials over the weekend. The hurdlers, sprinters, long distance runners, pole vaulters, steeple chasers, and long jumpers made me realize that I am not actually a runner, which is a little contrary to my thinking over the past few years. I thought that I was a runner. Au contraire, I am a person that enjoys running. The new epiphany has helped me commit myself to constructing a training schedule for a 1/2 marathon in the December, January or February time frame. I plan to adhere as best as possible to a 16 week training plan that follows below.

Week 1 –

Thursday – Stretch, Run 3 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 4 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Uphill 6 Sprint + 3 mile run, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 5 mile, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 2

Thursday – Stretch, Run 3 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 4 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Uphill 6 Sprint + 3 mile run, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 5 mile, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 3

Thursday – Stretch, Run 4 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 5 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Hill Run + 4 miles, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 5 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 4

Thursday – Stretch, Run 4 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 5 miles for time, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Hill Run + 4 miles, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 5 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 5

Thursday – Stretch, Run 5 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 6 miles for time, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Run 5 mile fartlek (Straight Shot), Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday- Stretch, Distance Run 6 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 6

Thursday – Stretch, Run 5 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 6 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Uphill 6 Sprint + 5 miles, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 6 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 7

Thursday – Stretch, Run 6 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 6 mile fartlek, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch,  6 mile hill run, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 7 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 8

Thursday – Stretch, Run 6 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 6 Uphill sprints + 6 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Run 5 mile tempo for time, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 8 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 9

Thursday – Stretch, Run 6 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 7 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Hill Run 6 miles, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 9 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 10

Thursday – Stretch, Run 7 miles, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 8 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, 7 mile fartlek, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 10 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 11

Thursday – Stretch, Run 7 miles, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 8 miles for time, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Run 6 miles tempo, Hydrate

Monday -Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 10 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 12

Thursday – Stretch, Run 7 miles, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 7 miles for time, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Run 7 miles Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, 6 mile tempo run for time, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 13

Thursday – Stretch, Run 7 miles, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 8 mile for time, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Run 8 mile fartlek, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Run 12 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 14

Thursday – Stretch, Run 8 miles for time, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 6 uphill sprints + 4 miles, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Hill Run 4 miles for time, Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 12 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 15

Thursday – Stretch, Run 8 miles, Hydrate

Friday – Stretch, Run 8 miles for time, Hydrate

Saturday – Rest

Sunday – Stretch, Tempo Run 6 miles,  Hydrate

Monday – Stretch, Cross Train (Weights, PU, SU, AB, Cycling, Jujitsu, etc), Hydrate

Tuesday – Stretch, Distance Run 8 miles, Hydrate

Wednesday – Yoga

Week 16

Thursday – Yoga

Friday – Yoga

Saturday Yoga

Sunday – Race Day

Monday – Recover

 

Hydration Policy

Why write stuff about hydration policies? Why should I hydrate? With what should I hydrate? All relatively decent questions. Answers are likely to arise from the situation of the persons or people. I expect this entry to meander a little. Just be prepared for a smattering of ideas as you read further. Hopefully, the reader of this content can find some use in remaining safe and increasing the likelihood of an enjoyable summer.

People familiar with the heat and humidity of the summer in the southern US will tell you that the weather can sometimes be extreme and even oppressive. Mind over matter? If you don’t mind it don’t matter. Well. The Old Farmers Almanac of 2019 includes a guide to determine the heat index for individuals participating in outdoor activities. The Almanac defines the heat index as “a measure of how hot it feels when humidity is factored in with actual air temperature.” The heat index is often greater than the actual temperature outside and makes individuals even hotter than normal. For the purposes of this entry, a short discussion of the temperature versus the heat index and a comparison becomes more important for scheduling activities outside.

The Almanac depicts a chart in Fahrenheit and Celsius. This entry is discussed in terms of Fahrenheit. A discussion of temperature begins on a y axis at 80 degrees and increases to 100 degrees. The x axis depicts a scale of relative humidity starting at 40 percent and increasing by 5 percent to 100 percent. A temperature outside of 100 degrees F with 40 percent humidity feels like 109 degrees F. A temperature outside of 100 degrees F with 65 percent humidity feels like 136 degrees F. The increase of only 25 percent humidity outside increases the feels like temperature by a 27 degree margin.

Similarly, at the low end of the temperature range of 80 degrees F, increasing the humidity from 40 percent to 100 percent humidity only increases the feels like temperature outside by 7 degrees F. What percent increase in humidity yields the approximately same feels like temperature at 82 degrees F? The answer is 30-35 percent increase in humidity at 82 degrees F. At 84 degrees F? The answer here is a 15-20 percent increase in humidity at 84 degrees F. At 86 degrees F? 5 percent increase in humidity. This is according to the Almanac’s numbers. Two things are said about this change here. Decreasing the humidity outside while increasing the temperature results in a feels like temperature that is mostly bearable. Increasing the humidity and increasing the temperature could generate heat related injuries.

The above example showed that effects of the feels like temperature outside by a decrease to humidity while increasing the temperature. All of these temperatures with the accompanying humidity levels can be dangerous depending on the level of fitness, activity, age, and a number of additional variables. The last temperature on the Almanac’s scale that allows a reading of 100 percent humidity is 90 degrees F. Why is this particular temperature important? For starters, at 90 degrees F and 40 percent humidity, the feels like temperature already increases 1 degree F. The feels like temperatures below 90 degrees F are equivalent to or even less than the actual temperature in degrees F. At 90 degrees, the feels like temperature with the least amount of recorded humidity on the chart (40 percent) already feels hotter. At 90 degrees F with 50 percent humidity, the feels like temperature increases to 95 degrees. At 90 degrees F with 60 percent humidity, the feels like temperature increases to 100 degrees. At 90 degrees F with 70 percent humidity, the feels like temperature increases to 106 degrees. At 90 degrees F with 80 percent humidity, the feels like temperature increases to 113 degrees. At 90 degrees F with 90 percent humidity, the feels like temperature increases to 122 degrees. At 90 degrees F with 100 percent humidity, the feels like temperature increases to 132 degrees F.

The feels like temperature at 90 degrees F with 40 percent humidity and 100 percent humidity is a change of 31 degrees. Further increases in temperature above 90 degrees that coincide with increases in humidity condense the feels like temperature at a faster rate of increase.

The Almanac explains ways to self-regulate one’s internal body temperature. Drinking cool fluids, such as water, decrease the likelihood of heat related injuries. Caffeine, salts, alcohol, and strenuous exercise increase the likelihood of heat related injuries.

A fit person that exercises on a regular basis and hydrates with water and maintains a reasonable diet can ordinarily work through the heat related issues for a short period of time. The person would need to rest in a cool place and hydrate, but under reasonable circumstances, the person is likely to avoid heat related injuries.

I contend from this point forward that drinking one alcoholic beverage at least 18 hours prior to strenuous exercise in the extreme heat and humidity is likely to have adverse effects on the person. The extreme heat and humidity in this example is 90-92 degrees F with at least 90 percent humidity. The feels like temperature at 92 degrees and 90 percent humidity is 131 degrees F. The feels like temperature 92 degrees and 100 percent humidity is not recorded on the Almanac’s chart and is approximately 141 degrees F, based on estimates from the chart.

What is the point of this exercise? One beer 18 hours before strenuous exercise in the extreme heat and humidity is likely to produce a heat related injury of some type depending on the person’s age, fitness level, diet and general conditions. Strenuous exercise is cycling for one half hour or eight miles without replenishing the fluids lost from sweat.

This entry is not meant to dissuade people from having a good time during the summer. This is meant to help people plan activities around extreme weather accordingly.

Hydrate with cool water in the shade whenever possible. Do not become a casualty of the heat!

 

 

 

The Baseball Shift

Some people in the baseball community are starting to believe that strategy for winning games in the 162 game season includes shifting fielders on one side of the field to cluster on the other side of the field. Looking at the dynamics of a baseball diamond, the observer is likely to see that the field in its entirety as a quarter of a circle. The ray from home plate to second base marks a 45 degree angle. Lately, many strategic decisions made by managers effectively move third baseman, short-stop and the left-fielder over to the second baseman’s and first-baseman’s side of the field. The decision kicks out the second baseman to shallow right field. This decision is designed to guard against the left-handed hitter that pulls everything pitched into right field.

Decisions such as this are complete co-pouts and remove the responsibility of scouts and operations managers that fail to find quality players. Quality players are those that make adjustments in hitting to all fields rather than one field. This appears to be a symptom of a larger problem in professional sports. The larger problem is that in order sustain a fan base, franchise owners ask for buy in from the public. The majority of the public does not understand the undercurrents of strategy or know that post-season ball requires substantial pitching and defense excellence.

Baseball is a game of finesse. As such, this can be quite boring at times because finesse requires mental acuity for strategy and long-term thinking. Hitting home-runs is often sensational. Who doesn’t like to see the ball blasted out of the park? The answer: Everyone likes to see the ball hit out of the park as often possible. This increases revenue and profit and salaries for owners and players. Rarely does a team possess the financial resources to pay for offensive players and or defensive players.

The shift occurs at the Major League Baseball level throughout the minors and into college, high school and little league. The point of this entry is coaches that teach players correct fundamentals are likely to encourage hitters to hit the ball where the ball is pitched rather than pull the ball to the fence every fourth or fifth at bat. Players that hit the ball for average are sometimes just as exciting to watch because suspense is generated over the course of a series. Teams that know how to do this consistently are remarkably exciting to observe. The most recent San Francisco Giants, Boston Red Sox and the St. Louis Cardinals to some extent had such qualities.

 

 

 

Test

I reconnected the wix site and the blog after more than one year. This was somewhat difficult trying to remember how these website sites connect. I am not sure whether the blog will accept comments. Additionally, the random advertisements may prove to annoy me more than I value actually having the site up. Time will tell. I will do my best to at least comment a little every now and again.

And the video, I disconnected the video from youtube a while back also. Probably shouldn’t have done that.

 

Cheers —–Tony

Teaching Portfolio: AHE 603 Final Project

This text is a link to my website. Click on the link to be re-routed to my website.

I constructed the website to showcase my work. The portfolio emphasizes teaching because my philosophy statement, interests and effectiveness are stated or implied throughout the website. I include my research in this online portfolio also because I plan to teach from at least some of my research and at some point of my tenure at the institution upon hire. Search committees for employment are likely to include professionals that evaluate the content and effectiveness of my work.

My CV and a cover letter are included under the career tab. The CV took nine years to build because I found difficulty in determining the appropriate content. The Graduate School initially explained that everything that I have done in my career needed to go into the CV. I listed jobs that seemed trivial to me at the time to show continuity in my career, regardless of whether the knowledge, skills and abilities are transferable into my current position. The cover letter came along after I re-learned the appropriate techniques for writing.

The interests tab includes the research project that I analyzed and constructed as a student in the political science department at The University of Alabama. I synthesized the research project into its current format for the presentation at the Education Studies Psychology Research Methodology and Counseling (ESPRMC) Symposium held March 23, 2018. My teaching philosophy statement is available for viewing under the teaching section. I included a sample of my research for your review under the research section also.

As I mentioned on the last day of class, I spent the better part of last year trying to brainstorm, while not enrolled in classes, about the appropriate way to construct a syllabus for a class that I might teach in the future. After reading through the AHE 603 course texts I was able to put together the syllabi and formulate the appropriate pedagogy for future classes. I constructed one of the 300 level syllabi first. Then, I used the same 300 level syllabi as a template to build the other syllabi on the site. I found that the mental process for learning in the classroom changed across a variety of the courses for which I constructed the syllabi. I currently have six untested syllabi. I say untested because I have not yet used any of them for a class!

The book reviews tab includes the book reviews I wrote for AHE 603 including a brief summary of Nilson. I include a book review I wrote for AHE 602 also. The AHE 602 book review includes the topic of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.

I slightly adapted the video learning module for this portfolio. I plan to remove the actual video I posted for the AHE 603 course after the semester ends and use the same video with different credits at the end of the video to remain as part of my portfolio in the future. Other than adjusting the credits at the end of the film, the content and references are exactly the same.

Finally, and for the reader’s information, I snapped that “selfie” in the very last tab at my place of residence in Tuscaloosa. The content below the selfie is information to conclude the mind map experience. I hope that you find some use of the posted information. Conference participation can be an exceptional opportunity to meet and network with academics and other professionals from varying fields and disciplines. I was introduced to the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning material in AHE 602. I found the literature on learning to be thought provoking and it helped me to understand my role in the academic environment. Feel free to post comments or responses on my blog that reflect the content that is posted. Contact me by email with any questions, comments or ideas that you find of interest, or if you just want to say hello. Thanks for a great and memorable semester!

Thomas Angelo and Patricia Cross Book Review: Classroom Assessment Techniques A Handbook for College Faculty

I followed the guidance of Angelo and Cross in the same manner that I followed the guidance of Barkley. Angelo and Cross suggested the reader skip around in the book to the most appropriate or relevant spots of interests too. I started reading about the CATs in the second chapter as I constructed the learning module on goals. The TGI in the second chapter fit very nicely into my learning module of surface learning and deep learning. As I’ve gone back to read the CATs and post a comment, I confess, I did not reread the second chapter, but I did refer to it after reading CAT 35. Similarly, I skipped Chapter 4 because Angelo and Cross made the point that Chapter 4 is more appropriate for teachers with experience in the classroom implementing CATs. I skipped CATs 4 and 26 and glossed over the more complex CATs in the book. Angelo and Cross conclude that the implementation of the more complex CATs takes away from material content in teaching courses.

I liked the simpler CATs such as 6, 7, and 25. I constructed an activity after reading CAT 25. This activity is designed to generate test questions from students and construct a review sheet to study for exams. Students are expected to participate in this activity for credit as part of participation and attendance. Then take the exam for a grade also.

In this scenario the exam occurs in two parts: Part A and Part B. Students are required to answer 3 of 5 questions in short answer, true/false or fill in the blank in Part A. Short answer in this scenario means a solid 3-7 sentence paragraph. Students are provided the opportunity to generate 1-2 of the three types of questions asked on the exam. Questions constructed by students are subjected to editing from the teacher. Students are provided the opportunity to construct a question for Part B also. Students are expected to complete a short answer and essay to fulfill requirements for Part B.

The midterm exam policy follows. Three weeks before the midterm exam students are divided in to groups of 3-4 members to brainstorm. The groups are expected to generate questions for the mid-term exam. The brainstorm occurs for the duration of the class period and students are dismissed.

Students as individuals at home are provided one week to construct two questions that they would like to see asked on the exam. One question should be a regular/general question or set of questions of the material tested. A set of questions refers to definitions requiring fill in the blank or true false. This first question or set of questions could include a performance type learning question consisting of definitions that require fill in the blank or short answer in one or two sentences. The second question should be a more difficult question of the material tested. The second question might include relevant content of the big picture for the material covered in class through that point in the semester. This is an exercise for students at home. Students receive credit or no credit for having completed the assignment.

After one week, students should bring their assignments back to class on the specified day for credit. The teacher and the students, as a class, discuss the questions that the individual students constructed as part of their assignments. Students and the teacher fine tune and make micro adjustments to the questions that individual students constructed and answered at home. The questions or sets of questions are generated by the class for the review sheet. Individual students should anticipate answering the questions that they generated at home and have brought to class to receive full credit as part of their participation grade.

The teacher brings in a review sheet consisting of questions selected by students one week before the exam. This review sheet is used to study for the student generated questions on the exam. Not all the questions on the exam are student generated. Two out of three questions in Part A are likely student generated. And one of the two questions in Part B are likely student generated. Discretion remains with the teacher to edit or in some cases completely throw out questions generated by students. The evaluation format for the exam is constructed by the teacher one week prior to the administration of the exam.

Angelo and Cross set this project up using the scientific method. While use of the scientific method in higher education, college or university, is accepted, Angelo’s background in political science may lend support to questions of ethical decision making that has implications for students in classrooms. Political agendas constructed solely for the acquisition of funding or other financial resources outside of the salary earned at an institution of higher learning by tenured faculty members and for student assessment in the classroom is a very delicate endeavor. Political agendas engineered to extract resources from third parties could manipulate students in the classroom and thereby enrich the social engineers constructing such an agenda and lead to the profiting off of students in a public classroom type of setting without their knowledge. Of course, this leads to the argument for institutional review boards overseeing the construction of knowledge.

The critical element of this process, in my view, is whether the researchers undertaking an investigation to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge receive funding from a third party. Funding granted by a third party to a researcher could influence the results of the science behind the method, bias the observations of the research favorably toward the third party providing the funding and make the researcher an agent of the third party granting the funding. I make no such accusation. This is no such accusation against Angelo and Cross that their work is unethical. I have no idea what the context of their research entails. Inferences can be made, however, into the context of their research as it relates to the scientific method, the possibility that researchers and investigators receive funding from third parties and the ethical decisions that are made as it relates to students.